Coexistence of magnetic and electric domains in hexagonal YMnO3.
Coexistence of magnetic and electric domains in hexagonal YMnO3. The antiferromagnetic 180° domains in (a) were imaged by optical second harmonic generation. The ferroelectric 180° domains in (b) were recorded by piezoresponse force microscopy in collaboration with E. Soergel (Physics Institute, University of Bonn). Note the surprisingly large expansion of the antiferromagnetic domains and the unusual kaleidoscopic topology of the ferroelectric domains with intersections of six domains. It took more than a decade to reveal the details of the coexistence between the magnetic domain structure (image taken before 2000) and the electric domain structure (image taken in 2010).
Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 012904 (2010)